Eittland and Its Language
A Constructed Language for a Fictional Nordic Country

Table of Contents


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This document is about a constructed language (conlang) I created. It will be written as an in-universe document, in an alternate history where the Eittlandic Kingdom actually exists in our world, with its history intertwined with ours. Any vague part about any linguistical or cultural aspect is most likely due to a lack of worldbuilding, so if you read something along the lines of “more research needs to be done on the subject” simply means I have not yet written on it (or I may not plan to).

A Warning to the Reader

This document deals with the evolution of a real historic language towards a completely made up language, as well as the evolution of a similarly made up people in a made up country. I am no linguist, ethnologist, nor historian, and making this requires a lot of knowledge which I don’t have (if anything, you could consider me an armchair linguists: I read lots of books on the subject). Therefore, I will take shortcuts here and there on various topics.

Any “fact” you might learn about the Old Norse people, language, or history might be altered reality if not straight up wrong, although I do try to strive to achieve something believable and as close as I can to reality.

Let me reiterate: I am no expert in the subjects presented here, do not take anything I say at face value. I believe the scientific term for some stuff written here is “bullshit”.

This is a work of fiction. Any resemblance to persons living or dead, to any real event, or any real people is purely coincidental.

List of abbreviations

strong feminine noun or adjective
strong masculine noun or adjective
strong neutral noun or adjective
weak noun or adjective

1. Eittland

Eittland (Eittlandic: Eittland ᛅᛁᛐᛐᛚᛆᚿᛑ /ɑɪtlɑ̃d/) is part of the family of Nordic countries, with a population of 31.5 millions as per the 2019 national census. It has a superficy of 121 km2, making it the second largest island in Europe after Great Britain. Its capital Đeberget is the largest eittlandic city with a population of 1.641.600 in 2019. The island is naturally separated in two, its western and eastern sides, by a chain of volcanoes spawning on the separation of the North American and the Eurasian plates, much like its northern sister Iceland. Thus, its Eastern side covers 49km2 of the island and hosts 11.3 million inhabitants while the western side covers 72km2 with a population of 20.1 millions.

1.1. Geography

Eittland is an active volcanic island. In its center we can find the most active volcanoes, surrounded by glaciers and some regular mountains. It is surrounded by some taiga, taiga plains covered mainly by ashen pines (pinus fraxinus), and a large cold desert covering most of the center of the island and its northern eastern part. Outside of this largely unpopulated region, Eastern Eittland mainly consists of grasslands with some temperate rainforests on its southern shores as well as some occasional wetland and marshes. On the other hand, Western Eittland has a lot more temperate deciduos forests, temperate rainforests and some more wetlands and marshes still. Three small cold deserts spawn in Western Eittland, including one north east of Đeberget not far from the city. More details can be found in the map 1. Overall, the southern and western parts of Eittland can be compared to Scotland in terms of temperatures, or a warmer Iceland.


Figure 1: Biomes of the Eittlandic Island

Eastern Eittland is also recognizable by its great amount of flat shorelines, especially in its northern and eastern parts which are part of the more recent paths of lava flows. On the other hand, its few fjords and the numerous fjords found in the western part of the island are characteristic of much older parts of Eittland. The Fjord themselves were formed during the last ice age, while the smoother shore lines formed since. Western Eittland also has two main bays which are two very old caldeira volcanoes. It is not known whether they will be one day active again or not.

1.2. Culture

The Eittlandic people share a common basis for their culture which remained rather conservative for much longer than the other nordic people due to its resistance towards Christianity conversion. The number of people adhering to Norse beliefs remained very high through the ages and only recently began declining, going from 93% of Eittlanders declaring themselves follower of the Norse Faith in 1950 to 68% in 2019. This decline is also due to either people converting to a religion or due to the immigration boom from the last seventy years, though the main reason is the decline in people identifying to any faith at all — the number of atheists went from only 2% of Eittlanders in 1940 to 15% in 2019. The evolution of the religious population is shown in the chart 2, and a geographical distribution of these in 2019 can be found in the map 3 — note that only the main religion is shown in a particular area and religions with less people in said area are not shown. You can also see on said map the population repartition of Eittland.


Figure 2: Religious Evolution of Eittland Since 1900


Figure 3: Religious population of Eittland

There is also a regional cultural difference between Western, Eastern, and Southern Eittland marked with some differences in traditions and language. There is currently a nationalist movement in Southern Eittland so a new state is created within the Kingdom of Eittland. The repartition of the different eittlandic cultures is shown in the map 4.


Figure 4: Cultural Map of Eittland

Standard Eittlandic is a relatively young language, created in the 1960s by the government in order to create a standard dialect to facilitate communications between Eittlanders and make learning the language easier. Standard Eittlandic is now enforced as the de facto legal language of the High Kingdom of Eittland, used by its government, schools, and universities, but the local dialects are still widely spoken privately and in business which remains regional. They still have a strong presence in popular media and are still spoken by younger generations, however, a decline has been registered since the 90s among young people living in cities, speaking more and more in Standard Eittlandic instead. Dialects are also rarely used on the internet outside of private conversation. An estimate of 17% of the Eittlandic population younger than 25 in 2017 do not speak any dialectal Eittlandic outside of Standard Eittlandic, although only 2% of them do not understand their family’s dialectal Eittlandic. Standard Eittlandic also became the default dialect for Eittlandic communities living outside of Eittland — in these communities the inability of speaking other dialects rise to 61% while the ability to understand them rises to 25% among Eittlanders younger than 25 in 2018 and who still have Eittlandic as their mother tongue.

It is estimated only 0.05% of people living in Eittland do not speak any Eittlandic dialect, all of them being immigrants or children of immigrants. It is therefore safe to say Eittlandic is still going strong and does not face any risk of disappearing anytime soon, although we might be at the start of the decline of the historical dialects of Eittland in favor of Standard Eittlandic.

In this document, you will see references to both Standard Eittlandic and Modern Eittlandic. Although some people use the terms interchangeably, they are not. Standard Eittlandic refers to the official dialect described above, while Modern Eittlandic refers to all modern dialects of Eittlandic. This document focuses on Modern Eittlandic in general, and when details about specific dialects are given, the name of said dialect will be shared.

1.3. Name of the Country

The root of the name of “Eittland” is the accusative of einn (Old Norse one, alone) and land (Old Norse country, land. This is due to how remote it seemed to the people who discovered, before Iceland and Greenland were known. Hence, a possible translation of “Eittland” can be Lonely Land. The term “Eittlandic” is relatively transparent considering the term “Icelandic” for “Iceland” and “Greenlandic” for “Greenland”.

1.4. History

1.4.1. Early Eittlandic History (7th-12th centuries)

According to historical records, Eittland was first found in 763 by Norwegian explorers. Its first settlement appeared in 782 on its eastern shores with hopes of finding new farmland. The population grew rapidly after the discovery of the southern shores, and in 915 Eittland became self-governing with Ásmundr Úlfsonn declared the first Eittlandic king. However, in order to avoid any unnecessary conflicts, the new king swore allegiance to the Norwegian king Harald I Halfdansson. Eittland thus became a vassal state to the Norwegian crown while retaining autonomy from it, which was granted due to the distance between the two countries.

Shortly after however, the beginning of the christianisation of the nordic countries and especially of Norway created a new immigration boost in Eittland with norsemen seeking a pagan land untouched by christian faith. In 935, a year after Haakon I Haraldsson became king of Norway and began trying to introduce Christianity to its people, the newly crowned king Áleifr I Ásmundson of Eittland adopted a new law forbidding the Christian faith to be imported, promoted, and practiced in Eittland. This decision forever weakened the alliance between the two countries and detariorated their relationship.

As more and more people in Eittland were moving to its western part due to larger opportunities with its farmlands, king Áleifr I chose in 936 to move the capital of Eittland from Hylfjaltr to Đeberget and split in half the country. He appointed his brother Steingrímr, later known as Steingrímr I Áleifsbróðr, as his co-ruler and gave him authority over Eastern Eittland while he kept ruling himself over Western Eittland. This choice is due to the difficulty of going from one side of the island to the other by land — lava flows often forcefully close and destroy paths joining the two parts together. This gave birth to the two states of the Kingdom of Đeberget (also called the Western Eittlandic Kingdom) and the Kingdom of Hylfjaltr (also called the Eastern Eittlandic Kingdom). More on that in §1.5.

1.4.2. Crusades and Independence (13th century - 1400)

As soon as the 13th century, and through the 14th century, the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, backed by the Holy Roman Empire, proposed crusades against Eittland to get rid of its norse faith. However, these never came to be due to the distance between Eittland and mainland Europe, despite the papal authorisations in 1228, 1257, 1289, 1325, and 1367.

In 1397, the creation of the Kalmar Union kicked a new crusade, this time backed by the Union itself as well as the Teutonic Order — Eric of Pomerania aimed to unify his country both religiously by getting rid of the norse faith in Eittland and politically by getting rid of its established monarchy. A contingent sailed to Eittland to submit the island, however they were met with fierce resistance by the locals on arrival. Estimates show that while some 2.400 Eittlandic people died during this first invasion, most of the 3.000 men sent were either killed or taken prisoners.

In 1398, a new contingent of 12.000 men landed in Eittland. This time, a much more prepared army of 14.000 men faced them on a battlefield east of the eastern capital of Hyfjaltr. This resulted in an Eittlandic victory, however the Monarch of Hylfjaltr Eiríkr IV Ásgeirsbróðr lost his life during the battle. Coincidentally, the High King Ásgeirr I Biœrgson died of unknown causes around the same time. Historians still debate whether it is due to the ongoing conflict, and if it is by who. Theories range from poisoning by spies from the Kalmar Union, to assassination by the next rulers, to a much more simple, unknown health condition which coincided with the ongoing events.

During the same year, the Althing elected Arvid I Geirson as the new High King who nominated his brother Havardr I Arvidbróðr as the Monarch of Hylfjaltr. While the previous monarchs took a more defensive approach, they chose to become much more aggressive, striving for independence. After demands were sent to the Kalmar Union, Eittland began a series of raids on its territories, ranging from Iceland to the Faroese Islands to even two raids in Norway and Denmark. These raids only aimed trade and military ships but severely handicaped the Union’s marine.

On September 17th, 1400 High King Arvid Geirson of Eittland and King Erik of the Kalmar Union met in Reykjavik to sign the Treaty of Reykjavik, during which the Kalmar Union recognized the independence of Eittland and renounced its claims to the island. On the other hand, Eittland ceeded its Greenlandic colonies to the Kalmar Union. Both parties agreed to end the hostilities towards one another.

While the Union no longer launched any crusades against Eittland, the Teutonic Order attempted to land again in 1407 with 4.000 men. Although the Kingdom of Hylfjaltr took a devastating blow during the initial days of the crusade, loosing well over 6.000 men, the invaders were ultimately defeated thanks to reinforcement from the Kingdom of Ðeberget. This marked the end of crusades in Eittland.

1.4.3. The Absolute Monarchy (1400-1852)

Once independent, Eittland quickly became isolated among the European nations due as it was percieved as a pagan nation by the rest of the continent. For over a century, the country had to be almost entirely self-sufficient. This lead to a more in-depth survey of the resources of the land launched in 1421. Large quantities of iron were discovered in 1432 in Western Eittland in the geologically older parts of the island as well as copper and some gold.

Unfortunately for the island, no coal deposit ever got found, the islanders turned to charcoal instead. During the following century, an important deforestation of Eittland took place until the royal decree of 1542 was proclaimed in order to protect the forests. It ruled that for each tree felled in the next hundred years, four shall be planted, and only one once the period ended. The only exceptions were for creating new pastures with the condition of the request being submitted and accepted by the local Jarl and its government.

The discovery of important marble deposits in the geologically more recent parts of the island in 1512 was the event that reopened trades with the continent. England was the first country to openly trade with Eittland, swiftly followed by states from the Holy Roman Empire and other protestant countries. The country became famous for its pure white and green marble, which became its emblem. Walking in the streets of major cities today, we can still see most of the monuments and buildings from during that era made of marble. It is particularly the case in Hylfjaltr, known by the nickname of “The White City” due to the sheer amount of monuments made of ouf this material.

It is around this time religious wars broke out in mainland Europe, and war refugees coming at first from Scandinavia and soon enough from all Northern and Western Europe came to Eittland to seek refuge. They were accepted on the condition never to try and spread their religion on the island with the risk of expulsion back to continental Europe. At the time, the influx of refugees represented around one percent of its total population, with about two thirds of it being protestants and the rest catholics. The local protestant population officially founded in 1587 the Church of Eittland.

You can find in the chart 5 a breakdown of the various countries and regions religious refugees came from. Although Scandinavia was one of the first regions to take refuge in Eittland, most of refugees came from the Holy Roman Empire and from France where religious wars were particularly violent. It is estimated most of the Protestant population of Eittland are mainly from French descent, while the HRE’s and Scandinavian population came with mixes of Christians and Protestants. On the other hand, most if not all of the English population was Christian.


Figure 5: Breakdown of the country or region of origin of religious refugees in the 1500s

With the beginning of coloniolization of Northern America, Eittland became a naval hotspot. Its position allowed ships to cut in half their journey if necessary and replenish their supplies. England and the Netherlands were the first countries to halt in Eittland for such reasons, participating in an important economic boom in the early 16th century on a national scale. France later joined this trade route starting in 1619 when going to their colonies in modern-day Canada.

On the 30th of March 1775, England demanded from Eittland a port to be used as a military port as part of their war effort during the American revolution. Eittland refused these demands, invoking a neutrality concerning the ongoing conflict. In response, England sent an ultimatum, asking the port of Vátrsteinn to be their military base. On Eittland’s second refusal, England declared war and launched a land invasion of the island. The general in charge of the invasion, Sir Andrew Sapping, decided to avoid landing in fjords, judging it too risky and prone to ambushes. Instead, English troops landed in the flatlands west of Vátrsteinn. While eittlandic troops were massing in the nearby town of Vestrfjoðarkjapt, a volcano erupted into a pyroclastic flow. The English landing site being on its path, half of the invading English forces were immediately wiped out, and two thirds of their vessels were badly dammaged or destroyed. Immediately after this, Sir Sapping surrendered to the Eittlandic troops which were captured as prisonners of war. Due to this defeat and the sudden reduction in available men and ships in the English army, the Treaty of Hylfjaltr was signed on the 25 of May of the same year. While England recognized its defeat, Eittland promised not to intervene on any side in the current rebellion of the American colonies (which was not the intent of Eittland in the first place).

After the independence of the United States of America, Eittland retained its status as a maritime hotspot between Northern America and Europe. Its ports of Kóparvall and Tvinnár, near Ðeberget and Hylfjaltr respectively, became the two major ports in Eittland, with Tvinnár generally favoured by ships coming from Europe and Kóparvall favoured by ships coming from Northern America.

1.5. Political Organization

1.5.1. Kingdoms and Monarchy

While Eittland is a single country, it is host to two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Đeberget in the western part of the country, and the Kingdom of Hylfjaltr in its eastern part. This is due to a separation of the country in two halves during the reign of Eittlands second king Áleifr I when he realized the difficulties he and the following monarchs of the island would face trying to rule the country alone while the latter is almost always split in two by active volcanoes. Thus, while the two kingdoms operate very independently from each other — each have their own policies on economics, education, industry, and so on — they also operate in cooperation as the Eittlandic High Kingdom with the king of Đeberget at its head when it comes to common policies, such as military decision and internrational affairs.


Figure 6: The Two Eittlandic States

This means that while both governments are independent from each other and are legally equals to each other, the western monarch is the one with the authority to decide on national actions after negotiations between them and the eastern monarch. This is reflected by the throne rooms found in official buildings such as the royal palaces where three thrones can be found: a central, very large throne surrounded by two other identical thrones, the right one for the monarch of Hylfjaltr and the left one for the king of Đeberget. Most of the time, both monarchs sit on their side throne, including when they meet each other as the monarchs of Hylfjaltr and Đeberget. However, when the monarch of Đeberget is meant to act as the High Monarch of Eittland, they step up to the central throne and then represent the country as a whole.

At the end of the reign of the High King, either through abdication or their death, his successor is enthroned within a month. Then, within a year, the new High King has to appoint a new monarch for Hylfjaltr. Traditionally, the new co-ruler is a brother of the current High Monarch, however history showed it could be sometimes an uncle, a son, a sister or even sometimes a daughter. When the eastern monarch either abdicates or dies, the High Monarch has a month to designate a new one.

Up until the 14th century, the monarch of Hylfjaltr was rarely the successor of the High Monarch. However, High King Ólafr I changed this tradition and created a new one. He named his brother and co-ruler King of Eittland and his son Prince of Eittland. From here on, the King (or occasionally the Queen) of Eastern Eittland was meant to become the new High Monarch of Eittland and make the Prince (or occasional Princess) the ruler of Hylfjaltr. Then, once the reign of the King ends, the Prince becomes the new High King and nominates a new King and a new Prince. This was done to ensure the upcoming High Monarch would be prepared in ruling the whole country by first ruling the state. If anything were to happen to the Prince or Princess of Eittland while the King or Queen of Hylfjaltr is on the throne, they would have to nominate a new heir among the other possible heirs possible for the late High Monarch.

When the High Monarchs steps up to the central throne, they may designate someone to fill in the role of the monarch of Đeberget for the time being. They can also authorize the monarch of Hylfjaltr to do so in case they are unavailable and someone need to represent the country in front of foreign representatives. The last example was during the two last years of Eríkr IX’s reign from 1987 to 1989 when he could not act as High King due to his illness. While he did not abdicate, he authorized king Harald III to act as High King while he appointed his daughter and present-day High Queen Njall III as the acting monarch of Đeberget.

1.5.2. Regions and Jarldoms

While each kingdom is ruled by a monarch and the country is ruled by the High Monarch, the kingdoms are divided into several kinds of subdivisions. The most common one is the jarldom, historically ruled by and still represented by a jarl during ceremonies. “Jarl” translates as “Earl” in English, and they were the nobles in charge of managing parts of the land in the name of the ruler.


Figure 7: Eittlandic Provinces

Some parts of the land are directly under the control of the crown, such as the districts of Đeberget and Hylfjaltr, which the ruler ruled without intermediaries. They are the private possessions of the family of the rulers.

On top of this the center of the island is divided in territories, one administered by the government of Đeberget and two by the government of Hylfjaltr. These territories are supposedly not inhabited by anyone and are currently natural parks. This is mostly where you can find the mountains and volcanoes of Eittland as well as its cold deserts.

Due to the Last Royal Decree of 1826, jarls no longer rule their jarldom themselves anymore. Instead, a local elected government takes care of this role now.

1.5.3. Governments Monarchy and Things

The first form of government created in Eittland revolved around Things (þing in Eittlandic), assemblies of varying size occasionally created at various levels of the state to decide on important matters, with the Althing being the highest Thing to exist in Eittland. The Things allow at first any adult man to participate, but as the population grew some restrictions were put in place in order to limit the amount of participants. Only one man could represent a household starting from 982. Then, starting from 998, only jarls were allowed to the ruler’s Thing, and only ten jarls from each kingdom, elected among all the jarls from the same kingdom, would be allowed to attend the High Monarch’s Thing. These jarls would then act as representatives of the kingdom to the High King and his counsellors.

In 1278, the first formal ministry (or department) was created in the Ðeberget Kingdom, called a Ráðuneyt (litt. “fellowship of counsellors”) with a Ráðunautr at its head, to aid the King Hallþórr V Gunhildson’s in administering agriculture. The Hylfjaltr Kingdom soon followed, creating its own in 1283 by order of Eyvindor III Steingrímson. From then, ráðuneyts were created as needed with a growing number. Constitutional Monarchy

In 1826, fearing the revolutionary climate in mainland Europe, Ólafr V passed the appropriately named “Last Royal Decree” in 1826. This act put in place a new form of government based on the British monarchy.

The king transfers all the royal power from the rulers of Đeberget and Hylfjaltr to the House of the People and the House of the Land (the equivalent of the lower and upper Houses respectively). The House of the People is composed of men elected during general elections every eight years. It was decided for each jarldom and district, one representative would be elected plus another one for each percentage of the population of the kingdom the jarldom represents.

A similar system was created for jarldoms in order to replace jarls with locally elected governments, as well as the organisation of municipalities.

At first only male land owner of the Nordic Faith could vote and could be elected. In 1886, all men of the Nordic Faith got the right to vote and be elected in the general elections. In 1902, women gained the right to vote and they gained the right to be elected in 1915. The law that allowed women to vote also made the authorities stop enforcing the restriction on the faith of the participants — while the original texts of 1826 and 1886 were clear on the fact only men of the Nordic Faith were allowed to vote and be elected, women had no such restriction making it unclear if it only applied to women or if this restriction was revoked for everyone. Organizers of the next elections in 1914 chose not to enforce this religious restriction and ever since then. In 1998, Queen Siv I exceptionally used her powers of High Queen to pass a law to clarify this issue and formally make Eittland a non-religious country. This also removed the long unenforced ban on other religions in Eittland.

Note that while the rulers of Đeberget and Hylfjaltr have lost all their power with the “Last Royal Decree”, the High Monarch remained unaffected by the text though they act and are expected to act as if it were the case. To replace them, the eastern and western governments elect a single national representative meant to act as the head of both states instead of the High Monarch who now holds only a ceremonial position. However, it happens from time to time the High Monarch passes a law, although they only write down in the law already well established traditions, such as the ban on the religious restrictions for voters which had not been enforced for almost a century by that point.

Today, Ráðuneyts still exist, but their head is no longer designated by the monarch but by the head of the House of the People. Here is the list of Ministries that exist in Eittland in 2022:

Agriculture Ministry
Justice Ministry
Foreign Affair Ministry
Education Ministry
Health Ministry
Kingdom’s Ministry (State Affairs)
Nature Ministry (including ecology)
War Ministry
Technology Ministry
Economy Ministry
Employment Ministry

With the separation of the State with its religious departments following the law of 1998, the Heiðniráðuneyt (the Heathendom Department) became an entity separate from the Government. Its Ráðunautr used to be exceptionally appointed by the House of the Land, unlike the rest of Ráðunautrs.

2. Structural Overview

2.1. Typological Outline of the Eittlandic Language

Over the last centuries, Eittlandic evolved to become a language leaning more and more towards an analytic language, losing its fusional aspect Old Eittlandic once had. It grammar now greatly relies on its syntax as well as on grammatical particules rather than on its morphology. Let’s take the following sentence as an example.

  1. barn fisk etar / a child is eating a fish

    barn et-ar fisk
    child.NOM eat-3sg fish.ACC

In this sentence, the word order helps us understand the child is the subject of the sentence while its subject is fisk, although we have no information on their number; the sentence could also very well mean children are eating fishes. Unlike in Old Eittlandic where we could have the following sentences.

  1. barn etar fiska

    barn et-ar fisk-a
    child.NOM eat-3sg fish-pl.ACC
  2. fiska etar barn

    fisk-a et-ar barn
    fish-pl.ACC eat-3sg child.NOM

Both have the same meaning as the Eittlandic sentence. However, the near-complete (or even complete in Standard Eittlandic) loss of case marking makes the sentence fisk barn etar much more gruesome.

  1. fisk etar barn / a fish is eating a child

    fisk et-ar barn
    fish.NOM eat-3sg barn.ACC

Eittlandic is a V-2 language, meaning in most cases, finite verbs are in second position in their clause and may be in first position interrogative clauses and dependent clauses, as shown below.

  • Han talð mér þat kom han hér í gær / he told me he came here yesterday

    han tal-ð mér þat kom han hér í gær
    3sg.m.NOM tell-3sg.PRET 1sg.DAT that come.3sg.PRET 3sg.m.NOM here yesterday

Loss of case marking also affected adjectives which share most of their declensions with nouns. The parts where Eittlandic retains its fusional aspect is with verbs, where loss of its words’ final vowel had much less impact, as we could see in barn fisk etar. In this case, etar is the third person singular declension of the verb et, a weak verb.

2.2. Phonetic Inventory and Translitteration

2.2.1. Evolution from Early Old Norse to Eittlandic

Eittlandic evolved early on from Early Old Norse, and as such some vowels it evolved from are different than the Old Norse vowels and consonants some other Nordic languages evolved from. In this chapter, we will see the main list of attested phonetic evolution Eittlandic lived through.

The history of Eittlandic goes from the late 8th century until modern-day Eittlandic. Its history is divided as shown on table 1. It is not an exact science though as changes happened progressively through the country. Changes were also progressive, meaning the dates chosen to go from one language to the other are relatively arbitrary. In evolution examples, it will be indicated whether the Eittlandic pronunciation is specific to a certain time area (with Early Middle Eittlandic, Late Old Eittlandic, etc…) but if it only specifies Eittlandic it means no significant changes in pronunciation occurred since the phonetic rule shown. Meaning is also shown between parenthesis. In case of semantic shift, its new meaning in Eittlandic is shown — the same goes for the word’s spelling.

Table 1: Linguistic eras of Eittland
Period Language
8th century - 12th century Old Eittlandic
13th century - 16th century Middle Eittlandic
17th century - today Modern Eittlandic

It is generally considered the gj-shift of the 13th century is the evolution that marks the change from Old Eittlandic to Middle Eittlandic while the great vowel shift marks the change from Middle Eittlandic to Modern Eittlandic between the 16th and the 17th century. hʷ > ʍ

One of the first evolution of the Eittlandic was the evolution of the /hʷ/ into a /ʍ/ (written <hv>). It differs from other nordic languages which evolved their /hʷ/ into a /v/, like in Icelandic or in Norwegian. However, this evolution is cause to debate, mainly due to the original phoneme /hʷ/ which could be inherited from Proto-Norse instead.

Early Old Norse or Late Proto-Norse hvat (what) /hʷɑt/ > Eittlandic hvat (what) /ʍɑt/ C / #h_ > C[-voice]

When preceded by a /h/, word-initial consonants such as <l>, <r>, <n> would lose their voicing and become voiceless consonants. Note <hj> went to /ç/.

  • Early Old Norse hlóð (hearth) /hloːð/ > Old Eittlandic hlóð /l̥oːð/
  • Early Old-Norse hneisa (shame, disgrace) /hneisɑ/ > Early Old Eittlandic /n̥eisɑ/
  • Early Old Norse hrifs (robbery) /hrifs/ > Old Norse /r̥ifs/
  • Early Old Norse hjól (wheel) /hjoːl/ > Old Eittlandic /çoːl/ g / {#,V}_⁣{V,#} > ɣ

In word-initial position and followed by a vowel or when between vowels, Early Old Norse /g/ gets palatalized into a /ɣ/.

Early Old Norse gegn (against, right opposite) /gegn̩/ > Old Eittlandic /ɣegn̩/ V / _⁣# > ∅ ! j _

When finishing a word, short unaccented vowels disappeared. Historically, they first went through a weakening transforming them into a /ə/, but they eventually disappeared before long vowels got affected by the first part of the rule. However, it did not apply to final vowels following a <j>.

Old Norse heilsa (health) /heilsɑ/ > Late Old Eittlandic heils /heils/.

Reflecting this change, the last vowel got lost in the Eittlandic orthography. However, this rule did not get applied consistently with a good deal of people that kept them well until the Great Vowel Shift. V / j_# > ə

While the final short vowel of words did not disappear when preceded by a <j>, they still weakened to a schwa.

Old Norse sitja (to sit) /sitjɑ/ > Old Eittlandic /sitjə/ Vː / _# > ə

When at the end of a word, long unaccented vowels get weakened into a schwa.

Old Norse erþó (as though) /erθoː/ > Late Old Eittlandic /erθə/.

Notice how in the modern orthography the <ó> didn’t get lost, unlike with the previous rule. Unlike the schwa from the previous rule, the current schwa still bears the long vowel feature although it is not pronounced anymore by that point, influencing the rule described in § ɣ / {#,V}_ > j

During the 13th century, continued palatalization of the letter <g> when beginning or preceding a vowel transformed it from /g/ in Proto-Norse to /ɣ/ in Old Eittlandic to /j/ in Early Modern Eittlandic.

Old Norse gauð (a barking) /gɑuð/ > Early Middle Eittlandic gauð (a barking, a quarrel) /jɑuð/.

This is the first rule of the g/j-shift along with the three next rules, marking the passage from Old Eittlandic to Middle Eittlandic. gl > gʲ

The exception to the above rule is the <g> remains a hard /g/ when followed by an <l> in which case /gl/ becomes /gʲ/.

Old Norse óglaðr (sad, moody) /oːɡlɑðr̩/ > Early Middle Eittlandic óglaðr (very sad, miserable) /oːɡʲɑðr̩/ d g n s t / _j > C[+palat]

Another exception to the rule in § is the <g> remains a hard /g/ when followed by a /j/, in which case /gj/ becomes /j/. Other phonemes /d/, /h/, /n/, /s/, and /t/ also get palatalized, merging with the following /j/. In the end, we have the conversion table given by the table 2.

Table 2: Consonants palatalization
Early Old Norse Eittlandic
/dj/ /dʒ/
/gj/ /j/
/nj/ /ɲ/
/sj/ /ʃ/
/tj/ /tʃ/

Note this is also applicable to devoiced consonants from the rule described in §

  • Early Old Norse djúp (deep) /djuːp/ > Middle Eittlandic djúp (deep, profound) /dʒuːp/
  • Early Old Norse gjøf (gift) /gjøf/ > Early Middle Eittlandic /jøf/
  • Early Old Norse snjór (snow) /snjoːr/ > Middle Eittlandic /sɲoːr/
  • Early Old Norse hnjósa (to sneeze) /hnjoːsɑ/ > Middle Eittlandic /ɲ̥oːs/
  • Early Old Norse sjá (to see) /sjɑː/ > Middle Eittlandic /ʃɑː/
  • Early Old Norse skilja (to understand, to distinguish) /skiljɑ/ > Early Middle Eittlandic /ʃkiljə/
  • Old Eittlandic sitja (to sit) /sitjə/ > Middle Eittlandic /sitʃə/ j > jə / _#

With the appearance of word-final /j/, and epenthtetic /ə/ appeared due to the phonological rule forbidding word-final consonant clusters to end with a /j/.

  • Early Old Norse berg (rock, boulder) /berɡ/ > Middle Eittlandic berg /berjə/ u / V_ > ʊ

When following another vowel, /u/ becomes an /ʊ/.

Old Norse kaup (bargain) /kɑup/ > Early Middle Eittlandic /kɑʊp/ {s,z} / _C[+plos] > ʃ

If /s/ or /z/ precede a plosive consonant, they become palatalized into a /ʃ/ — the distinction between <s> and <z> is lost.

  • Old Norse fiskr (fish) /fiskr̩/ > Middle Eittlandic /fiʃkr̩/
  • Early Old Norse vizka (wisdom) /βizkɑ/ > Middle Eittlandic viska /βiʃk/

Note that in the Modern Eittlandic orthography, the <z> is replaced with an <s>. f / {V,C[+voice]}_ {V,C[+voice],#} > v

When a <f> is either surrounded by voice phonemes or is preceded by a voiced phoneme and ends a word, it gets voiced into a /v/.

Old Norse úlf (wolf) /uːlf/ > Middle Eittlandic úlv /uːlv/. l / _j > ʎ

When followed by a <j>, any <l> becomes a /ʎ/, merging with the following <j>.

Early Middle Eittlandic skilja (to understand, to distinguish) /ʃkiljə/ > Middle Eittlandic /ʃkiʎə/ ə[-long] / C_# > ∅

As described in the rule §, the schwa resulting from it kept its long vowel feature although it wasn’t pronounced anymore. This resulted in the current rule making all schwas resulting from short vowels at the end of words to disappear when following a voiced consonant. This basically boils down to any former short vowel following a <j> in word-final position.

Middle Eittlandic (to understand, to distinguish) /ʃkiʎə/ > Late Middle Eittlandic /ʃkiʎ/ ɑʊ > oː

Sometime in the 15th century, any occurence of <au>, pronounced by then /ɑʊ/, began shifting to /oː/.

Early Middle Eittlandic kaup (bargain) //kɑʊp// > Late Middle Eittlandic kaup (commerce) {{{koːp}}} C[+long +plos -voice] > C[+fric] ! / _C > C[+long +plos] > C[-long]

Unless followed by another consonant, any unvoiced long plosive consonant becomes a short affricate while other long plosives simply become shorter.

  • Old Norse edda (great grandmother) /edːɑ/ > Late Middle Eittlandic edda (great grandmother, femalle ancestor) /edɑ/
  • Old Norse Eittland /eitːlɑnd/ > Late Middle Eittlandic /eitlɑnd/
  • Old Norse uppá (upon) /upːɑː/ > Late Middle Eittlandic /upɸə/ r > ʁ (Eastern Eittlandic)

From the beginning of the 16th century, the Eastern Eittlandic /r/ began morphing into an /ʁ/ in all contexts except in word-final <-r>, remanants of Old Norse’s nominative <-R>. This is typical in the Eastern region of Eittland and it can be even heard in some dialects of Southern Eittlandic.

  • Old Norse dratta (to trail or walk like a cow) /drɑtʃ/ > Eastern Modern Eittlandic dratt (act mindlessly) /dʁɑtʃ/
  • Early Old Norse fjárdráttr ((unfairly) making money) /fjɑːdrɑːtːr̩/ > Eastern Modern Eittlandic fjárdráttr (to scam) /fjɛʁdʁɛtr̩/ Great Vowel Shift

The great vowel shift happened during the 16th and 17th century during which long vowels underwent a length loss, transforming them into different short vowels. Only three rules governed this shift:

  • V[+high +long] > V[-high -long]
  • V[+tense +long] > V[-tense -long]
  • V[-tense +long] > V[-long -low]

Hence, the vowels evolved as shown in table 3.

Table 3: Evolution of Old Norse long vowels to Eittlandic short vowels
Orthography Old Eittlandic vowel Modern Eittlandic Vowel
á /ɑː/ /ɛ/
é /eː/ /ɛ/
í /iː/ /e/
ó /oː/ /ɔ/
œ (ǿ) /øː/ /œ/
ú /uː/ /o/
ý /yː/ /ø/

As you can see, some overlap is possible from Old Norse vowels and Modern Eittlandic vowels. For instance, Eittlanders will read <e> and <í> both as an /e/.

  • Middle Eittlandic sjá (to see) /ʃɑː/ > Modern Eittlandic /ʃɛ/
  • Old Norse (cattle) /feː/ > Modern Eittlandic (wealth) /fɛ/
  • Late Proto-Norse hví (why) /hʷiː/ > Modern Eittlandic /ʍe/
  • Old Norse bók (beech, book) /boːk/ > Modern Eittlandic (book) /bɔk/
  • Early Old Norse œgir (frightener, terrifier) /øːɡir/ > Modern Eittlandic Œgir (a kind of mythical beast) /œjir/
  • Middle Eittlandic úlv (wolf) /uːlv/ > Modern Eittlandic /olv/

Diphthongs also evolved following these rules:

  • /ei/ > /ɑɪ/
  • /ou/ > /ɔʊ/
  • /øy/ > /œʏ/ V / _N > Ṽ[-tense] ! V[+high] (Southern Eittlandic)

When preceding a nasal, any vowel that is not high as determined by the figure 8 gets nasalized when preceding a nasal consonant and loses its tenseness if it has any. Hence, the pronunciation of the <a> in Eittland is /ã/. However, Old Norse runa (rune) /runɑ/ becomes run (letter, character, rune) /run/ without any nasalization.

Note this evolution is mostly proeminent in the southern regions of Eittland and the city of Hundraðskip. It is less often documented in Eastern Eittland and almost undocumented in Western Eittland. It is more often documented in casual conversation buch rarer in formal conversation, especially when the majority of the speakers in a group are not southerners. t / _C > ʔ ! _ʃ

When a /t/ precedes another consonant, it becomes a glottal stop.

Early Modern Eittlandic Eittland /ɑɪtlɑnd/ > Modern Eittlandic /ɑɪʔlɑnd/ VU > ə ! diphthongs (Western Eittlandic)

A recent evolution in Western Eittland is weakening any unstressed vowel that is not a diphthong to a schwa. It is only documented in casual speech but almost never in formal speech.

  • Standard Eittlandic ádreif (spray) /ɛdrɑɪv/ > Western Casual Eittlandic /ɛdrɑɪv/
  • Standard Eittlandic einlægr (sincere) /ɑɪnlæɡr/ > Western Casual Eittlandic /ɑɪnləɡr/

2.2.2. Vowel Inventory

Modern Eittlandic has a total of ten simple vowels and three diphthongs, regardless of the dialect. Unlike its ancestor language, Old Norse, it does not bear any distinction in vowel length anymore since the great vowel shift (see § The table 4 lists the Eittlandic simple vowels while the table 5 lists the Eittlandic diphthongs.

Table 4: Vowel inventory of Modern Eittlandic
  front back
close i y u
close-mid e ø o
open-mid ɛ œ ɔ
open   ɑ
Table 5: Diphthongs of Modern Eittlandic
diphthong phonetics
ei /ɑɪ/
au /ɔʊ/
ey /œʏ/

Eittlandic Vowel Featural Tree

Figure 8: Eittlandic Vowels Featural Tree

a /ɑ/
á /ɛ/
æ /ɛ/
e /e/
é /ɛ/
i /i/
í /e/
o /o/
ó /ɔ/
u /u/
ú /o/
y /y/
ý /ø/

2.2.3. Consonant Inventory

2.2.4. Pitch and Stress

2.2.5. Regional accents

Eittlandic is a language in which three distinct main dialects exist with their own accent. These three main dialects are Eastern Eittlandic spoken in the majority Kingdom of Hylfjaltr, Western Eittlandic spoken in the majority of the Kingdom of Ðeberget, and Southern Eittlandic spoken on the southern parts of the island, regardess of the legal kingdom (see the map shown in §1.2. Three main elements of their respective accent were presented above in §§,, and

Some regional variation can be also found in these dialects, although less significant and less consistantly than the changes mentioned above. As such, we can find in some rural parts of the Eastern Eittlandic dialect area high vowels slightly more open than their equivalent in Standard Eittlandic, as shown in table 6

Table 6: Equivalence Between Eastern Eittlandic and Standard Eittlandic
Rural Eastern Eittlandic Standard Eittlandic
/i/ /ɪ/
/y/ /ʏ/
/u/ /ʊ/

On the other hand, Southern Eittlandic tends to front its /ɑ/ into /a/ after nasal consonants and glides and into /ɐ/ otherwise.

2.3. Word Classes

2.3.1. Modifiers Numerals

2.4. Structure of a Nominal Group

2.4.1. Grammatical Case Cases in Modern Eittlandic

Although seldom visible, as described in §, cases still remain part of the Eittlandic grammar, expressed through its syntax rather than explicit marking on its nouns and adjectives. Four different grammatical cases exist in this language: the nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative case.

  • The nominative case represents the subject of a sentence, that is, the subject of intransitive clauses and the agent of transitive clauses. As we’ll see below, it is morphologically marked only in dialects other than Standard Eittlandic, and only if the word is a strong masculine word.
  • On the other hand accusative, like Old Norse, usually marks the object of a verb, but it can also express time-related ideas such as a duration in time, or after some prepositions. It is also the default case when a noun has no clear status in a clause, and it can as such serve as a vocative.
  • Dative usually marks indirect objects of verbs in Old Norse, though it can also often mark direct objects depending on the verb used. Case Marking

Although present in Early Old Norse, the use of grammatical cases has been on the decline since the Great Vowel Shift (see § Due to the general loss of word-final short vowels and to regularization of its nouns, Eittlandic lost almost all of weak nouns’ inflexions and a good amount in its strong nouns’ inflexions. On top of this, the root of most nouns got regularized, getting rid of former umlauts. Hence, while in Old Norse one might find the table 7 presented in Cleasby and Vigfusson (1874), Modern Eittlandic is simplified to the table 8.

Table 7: 1st declension of strong nouns and declensions of masculine weak nouns in Old Norse
  Strong Masculine Strong Feminine Strong Neuter Weak Masculine
Sing. Nom. heim-r tíð skip tím-i
Acc. heim tíð skip tím-a
Gen. heim-s tíð-ar skip-s tím-a
Dat. heim-i tíð skip-i tím-a
Plur. Nom. heim-ar tíð-ir skip tím-ar
Acc. heim-a tíð-ir skip tím-a
Gen. heim-a tíð-a skip-a tím-a
Dat. heim-um tíð-um skip-um tím-um
Table 8: Declensions for strong and weak nouns in Modern Eittlandic
  Strong Common Strong Neuter Weak Nouns
Sing. Nom. heim-r skip tím
Acc. heim skip tím
Gen. heim-ar skip-s tím-s
Dat. heim skip tím
Plur. Nom. heim-r skip tím-r
Acc. heim skip tím
Gen. heim-ar skip-s tím-s
Dat. heim-um skip-um tím-um

As you can see, a good amount of declensions disappeared from nouns, with only four marked cases for strong common nouns and two for strong neuter and weak nouns. The declension system completely merged weak nouns which are no longer distinguished by gender. Strong masculine and strong feminine also got merged into strong common.

Declensions are no longer productive in almost all Modern Eittlandic dialects. They are still mostly used in formal and written speech, but they are less and less used in less formal circumstances and in oral speech. The Royal Academy for Literature, which authored Standard Eittlandic, even recommends not using grammatical cases when using this dialect as they are reduntand with other syntactic strategies. While the recommendation is mostly followed, speakers still tend to use the singular genetive declension oraly. Younger folks at the time of writing even tend to regularize it as -ar for strong neuter and weak nouns.

The only exception to declensions no longer being productive is in the Hylfjaltr Kingdom’s exclave in southern Eittland where speakers of its local dialect tend instead to favor strong nouns for newer terms. Hence, while most dialects agree on “internet” (pl.nom internetr, pl.dat internetum) being a weak noun, this dialect treats it as either a strong feminine (sg.gen internetar, pl.nom&acc internetr, pl.dat internetum) or a strong neuter (sg.gen internets, pl.dat internetum) — the difference is due to subdivisions in said dialect, mainly between rural and urban areas favoring the former and the latter respectively.

There are some regular exceptions to the declension system. The first one, inherited from Old Norse, is the -r suffix becoming -n or -l when a noun ends with an <n> or an <l> respectively, hence 9 showing the declensions of strong masculine himn (heaven) and strong feminine hafn (harbour, haven).

Sing. Nom. himnn hafnn
Acc. himn hafn
Gen. himnar hafnar
Dat. himn hafn
Plur. Nom. himnn hafnn
Acc. himn hafn
Gen. himnar hafnar
Dat. himnum hafnum

During the last five centuries, the root of the word got regularized so that only one or two forms are allowed. Due to umlaut or ablaut, it is possible the main vowel of a word changes between its singular and plural form, even sometimes affecting its dative form. These changes are due to old vowels long gone since — with most even gone by the time of Old Norse. These changes mainly remains in a few common words. 9 gives some examples of such irregularities. These words are marked as irregular in the dictionary.

  kettle (m.) foot (m.) book (f.) water (n.)
Sing. Nom. ketll fótr bók vatn
Acc. ketl fót bók vatn
Gen. ketlar fótar bókar vatn
Dat. ketl fót bók vatn
Plur. Nom. katll fœtr bœkr vótnn
Acc. katl fœt bœkr vótn
Gen. katl fœt bœk vótn
Dat. katlum fótum bókum vótnum

2.4.2. Articles and Demonstratives

When the noun of a nominal group is not a mass noun or a proper noun, an article must accompany it, except for indefinite plural nouns. Indefinite Article

The indefinite article is einn, the same term as one in Eittlandic. It agrees in declension with its noun, though it is to be noted its declension is irregular, as seen in table 9. Similarly, other numerals have declensions as discussed in

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. einn ein eit
Acc. ein ein eit
Dat. ein einn eits
Gen. einn ein eit Definite articles

As in other scandinavian languages, definite articles in Eittlandic act as suffixes to the noun and fully replace its declension as it has case marking itself. The full declension table of definite articles can be found in the table 9. As we can see, the definite articles underwent an important regularization as well as merging strong neuter and weak nouns together.

  Strong Common Strong Neuter and Weak Nouns
Sing. Nom. -(i)nn -(i)t
Acc. -(i)n -(i)t
Gen. -(i)ns -(i)ts
Dat. -(i)n -(i)t
Plur. Nom. -(i)nn -(i)tr
Acc. -(i)n -(i)t
Gen. -(i)n -(i)t
Dat. -(i)num -(i)tum

The initial i is only used when using the definite articles as a suffix would cause a consonant cluster forbidden by Eittlandic phonology, otherwise it is omitted. An example of the former case is with vatn (water) which becomes vatnits when in its definite singular genitive form, while øy (island) becomes øyns in the same form. Like the indefinite article, the suffix agrees in gender, agreeing either with strong masculine or feminine words (or as established before, strong common) or with strong neuter and weak nouns.

The use of definite articles with nouns is further discussed in §2.4.3.

2.4.3. Definiteness

Definiteness in Eittlandic serves multiple purposes. Its most obvious one is to distinguish between an indefinite and a definite entity, as in English a dog or the dog, respectively einn hundr and hundinn, as discussed in §2.4.2.

However, definiteness is also necessary with suffixed possessives and demonstrative.

2.4.4. Possessives

2.4.5. Gender

Eittlandic inherited from Old Norse a gender system divided into three genders: male, female, and neuter. Although the number of elements marking it declined during its evolution, Eittlandic still marks gender in its strong nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and to a certain degree in its articles. However, as mentioned in, case marking and by extensions gender marking is slowly disappearing in Modern Eittlandic nouns and adjectives.

Due to the presence of declensions with strong nouns and adjectives, its pronouns, and to a certain degree different articles, it can still be said Eittlandic is a gendered language although it doesn’t hold much importance in its grammar anymore. Since strong nouns aren’t productive anymore and weak nouns lost all obvious gender differences, we can even consider gender as not productive anymore in Eittlandic and bound to eventually disappear. In fact, the loss of gender is even stronger in Standard Eittlandic due to the theoretical absence of declensions in this dialect.

In case a strong noun is used with a strong adjective, both will agree in number and gender.

  • Examples:
    • hvítr hundr / white.m.sg.acc dog.m.sg.acc
    • langir tungir / long.f.pl.acc tongues.f.pl.acc

3. Dictionary

3.1. A

3.2. Á

3.3. Æ

3.4. B

m. /brɛð/ See bróð

m. /brɔð/

  1. brother, plural bræð

Re-analysis of bródir decomposed into bróð + -ir by popular etymology. Same goes for its former plural bræðir which got re-analyzed into bræð + -ir.

  Singular Plural
Nom. bróðr bræðr
Acc. bróð bræð
Gen. bróðir bræðir
Dat. bróð bræðum

f. /bɔk/

  1. book, plural bøk
  Singular Plural
Nom. bókr bøkr
Acc. bók bøk
Gen. bókar bøkar
Dat. bók bøkum
f. /bøk/ See bók

3.5. C

3.6. D

adj. /dʒop/
  1. deep
  2. profound (figuratively)
adv. /dʒopliɡr̩/
  1. deeply
f. /dɔʧir/, plural dœtr /dœtr̩/
  1. daughter

3.7. Đ

3.8. E

f. /ed/
  1. great grandmother
  2. female ancestor, beyond the grandmother
n. /ɑɪʔlɑnd/
  1. (n) High Kingdom of Eittland, island of Eittland

3.9. É

3.10. F

m. /feð/ See føð

n. /fɛ/

  1. wealth

From Old Norse .

  Singular Plural
Gen. fés fés
Dat. férum

m. /fiʃk/

  1. fish

From Old Norse fiskr.

  Singular Plural
Nom. fiskr fiskr
Acc. fisk fisk
Gen. fiskar fiskar
Dat. fisk fiskum

m. /føð/

  1. father, plural feð

    From Old Norse fødir and feðir which got re-analyzed as appended with an -ir.

  Singular Plural
Nom. føðr feðr
Acc. føð feð
Gen. føðar feðar
Dat. føð feðum

3.11. G

n. /jɔʊð/
  1. a barking
  2. a quarrel
adv. /jeɡn̩/
  1. against, opposing
f. /jøv/
  1. gift, present

3.12. H

f. /hɑɪls/
  1. health
n. /çɔl/
  1. wheel
n. /l̥ɔð/
  1. hearth
  2. living room
f. /n̥ɑɪs/
  1. shame, disgrace
  2. social isolation
n. /n̥ɑɪsinɡ/
  1. hermit
  2. (modern) shut-in, hikikomori
v. /ɲ̥ɔs/
  1. to sneeze
n. /r̥ivs/
  1. assault, mugging
adv. /ʍɑt/
  1. what
adv. /ʍe/
  1. why

3.13. I

3.14. Í

3.15. J

3.16. K

n. /kɔp/
  1. commerce
  2. bargain, barter

3.17. L

3.18. M

3.19. N

m. /norejsolv/
  1. wolf, litt. Norway’s wolf. Wolf do not naturally live in Eittland and their only relatives introduced to the island were dogs and wolf-dogs which inherited the simpler úlfr term. Noun composed by Old Norse noregs (genitive of Noregr, Norway) and úlfr.

3.20. O

3.21. Ó

adj. /ɔɡʲɑðr̩/
  1. very sad, depressed, miserable

3.22. Ø

3.23. Œ

m. /œjir/
  1. A mythical beast residing in the forests of the western Eittlandic fjords.

3.24. P

3.25. Q

3.26. R

3.27. S

v. /sitʃ/
  1. to sit
  2. to represent (politics)
v. /ʃɛ/
  1. to see
  2. to understand
v. /ʃkiʎ/
  1. to differenciate
  2. to segregate, to separate
  3. to understand a difference
m. /sɲɔr/
  1. snow

3.28. T

3.29. Þ

3.30. U

prep. /upɸə/
  1. upon

3.31. Ú

m. /olv/
  1. wolf-dog. See also noregsúlfr.

3.32. V

f. /βɑɪshɑɪt/
  1. knowledge or wisdom. From German Weisheit. See also vizka

f. /βiʃk/

  1. practical knowledge or wisdom, acquired from experience

See veisheit for a more general term for wisdow

3.33. Y

3.34. Ý

3.35. Z

4. Table Index


Author: Lucien Cartier-Tilet

Email: lucien@phundrak.com

Created: 2022-09-23 Fri 10:49